ELC 2010 program announced

Japantown, San FranciscoThe program of talks and BOFs of the 2010 edition of the Embedded Linux Conference has been published a few days ago, an opportunity to look at the most important and interesting conference for embedded Linux developers. For the record, ELC 2010 will take place from April, 12th to April, 14th in San Francisco, CA, USA, in the same place as the 2009 edition.

A nice set of talks

  • A set of real-time related talks: Real-Time Linux Failure, by Frank Rowand (works for Sony, well known for his preempt-rt related talks at various ELC conferences), Effective Use of RT-Preempt, by Kevin Dankwardt, Using Interrupt Threads to Prioritize Interrupts, by Mike Anderson (also well known for his very interactive talks, he will also be giving his traditional Using JTAG to debug Linux device drivers tutorial), Measuring Responsiveness of Linux Kernel on Embedded System, by YungJoon Jung and DongHyouk Lim.
  • A talk by Grant Likely about Flattened Device Tree ARM support update, an effort to convert the ARM architecture to the same organization used in PowerPC, with a device tree file describing the hardware details instead of platform_device definitions in plain C. An important change for anyone doing ARM kernel development.
  • Several power-management related talks: Runtime Power Management: Overview and Platform Implementation, by Kevin Hillman (who works for Deep Root Systems and has done a huge amount of work in the OMAP power management area). Runtime Power Management is probably the most important change done recently to the power management infrastructure of the Linux kernel, so this talk is certainly worth a look, all the more as Kevin is a very good speaker. On power manegement, there will also be other talks : DVFS for the Embedded Linux, by Yong Bon Koo and Youngbin Seo, Wake-ups effect on idle power for Intel’s Moorestown MID and smartphone platform, by German Monroy (Intel), Workload based aggressive Power Management on the Intel Moorestown MID and future Intel MID/Smartphone Platforms, by Sujith Thomas (from Intel).
  • Japan Town, San FranciscoThe usual tracing-related talks, with Using the LTTng tracer for system-wide performance analysis and debugging by Mathieu Desnoyers and Ftrace – embedded edition, by Steven Rostedt. A talk on debugging Linux toolchain overview with advanced debugging and tracing features, by Dominique Toupin.
  • Talks about platforms: a keynote by Greg Kroah Hartmann on Android: a case study of an embedded Linux project (during which Greg will probably explain why the Android kernel modifications are not mainlined), Experiences in Android Porting, Lessons learned, tips and tricks, by Mark Gross and Understanding and Developing Applications for the Maemo Platform, by Leandro Melo de Sales, even though the recent merge of Maemo and Moblin to create MeeGo is likely to change some technical aspects of application development for this platform.
  • The question of multi-core now also seems to be present in embedded conferences: Strategies for Migrating Uniprocessor Code to Multi-Core, by Mike Anderson, Embedded Multi-core with Adeos, Dan Malek, Lock-free algorithm for Multi-core architecture, Hiromasa Kanda. Multi-core Scheduling optimizations for soft real-time multi-threaded applications – A cooperation aware approach, Lucas Martins De Marchi.
  • Some security talks, with Mike Anderson (again !) talking about Creating a Secure Router Using SELinux and Jake Edge about Understanding threat models for embedded devices
  • Some more-or-less multimedia-oriented talks: Supporting SoC video subsystems in video4linux, by Hans Verkuil, An Introduction to the Qt Development Framework, by Jeremy Katz, GeeXboX Enna: embedded Media Center, by Benjamin Zores, Case Study – Embedded Linux in a digital television STB, by Melanie Rhianna Lewis
  • In the other talks, I’ve noted the Small Business Owners BOF by Grant Likely, Evaluation of Data Reliability on Linux File Systems by Yoshitake Kobayashi, Porting the Linux Kernel to x86 MID platforms, by Jacob Pan, Linux without a bootloader? by Greg Ungerer, Kexec – Ready for Embedded Linux by Magnus Damn, Custom hardware modeling for FPGAs and Embedded Linux Platforms with QEMU, by John Williams, Edgar Iglesias.

Both Michael Opdenacker and I will be there at ELC. We hope to meet you during this conference!

Linux 2.6.33 features for embedded systems

Interesting features for embedded Linux system developers

Penguin workerLinux 2.6.33 was out on Feb. 24, 2010, and to incite you to try this new kernel in your embedded Linux products, here are features you could be interested in.

The first news is the availability of the LZO algorithm for kernel and initramfs compression. Linux 2.6.30 already introduced LZMA and BZIP2 compression options, which could significantly reduce the size of the kernel and initramfs images, but at the cost of much increased decompression time. LZO compression is a nice alternative. Though its compression rate is not as good as that of ZLIB (10 to 15% larger files), decompression time is much faster than with other algorithms. See our benchmarks. We reduced boot time by 200 ms on our at91 arm system, and the savings could even increase with bigger kernels.

This feature was implemented by my colleague Albin Tonnerre. It is currently available on x86 and arm (commit, commit, commit, commit), and according to Russell King, the arm maintainer, it should become the default compression option on this platform. This compressor can also be used on mips, thanks to Wu Zhangjin (commit).

For systems lacking RAM resources, a new useful feature is Compcache, which allows to swap application memory to a compressed cache in RAM. In practise, this technique increases the amount of RAM that applications can use. This could allow your embedded system or your netbook to run applications or environments it couldn’t execute before. This technique can also be a worthy alternative to on-disk swap in servers or desktops which do need a swap partition, as access performance is much improved. See this LWN.net article for details.

This new kernel also carries lots of improvements on embedded platforms, especially on the popular TI OMAP platform. In particular, we noticed early support to the IGEPv2 board, a very attractive platform based on the TI OMAP 3530 processor, much better than the Beagle Board for a very similar price. We have started to use it in customer projects, and we hope to contribute to its full support in the mainline kernel.

Another interesting feature of Linux 2.6.33 is the improvements in the capabilities of the perf tool. In particular, perf probe allows to insert Kprobes probes through the command line. Instead of SystemTap, which relied on kernel modules, perf probe now relies on a sysfs interface to pass probes to the kernel. This means that you no longer need a compiler and kernel headers to produce your probes. This made it difficult to port SystemTap to embedded platforms. The arm architecture doesn’t have performance counters in the mainline kernel yet (other architectures do), but patches are available. This carries the promise to be able to use probe tools like SystemTap at last on embedded architectures, all the more if SystemTap gets ported to this new infrastructure.

Other noticeable improvements in this release are the ability to mount ext3 and ext2 filesystems with just an ext4 driver, a lightweight RCU implementation, as well as the ability to change the default blinking cursor that is shown at boot time.

Unfortunately, each kernel release doesn’t only carry good news. Android patches got dropped from this release, because of a lack of interest from Google to maintain them. These are sad news and a threat for Android users who may end up without the ability to use newer kernel features and releases. Let’s hope that Google will once more realize the value of converging with the mainline Linux community. I hope that key contributors that this company employs (Andrew Morton in particular) will help to solve this issue.

As usual, this was just a selection. You will probably find many other interesting features on the Linux Changes page for Linux 2.6.33.

Embedded Linux practical labs with the Beagle Board

Note: the materials for training with the Beagle Board are no longer available, and would be significantly out of date anyway. We advise you to check our Embedded Linux System Development and Linux Kernel and Driver Development training courses for up-to-date instructions that work on cheaper boards, which are still available on the market today. And if you still have an old Beagle board, it will be an interesting exercise to adapt our current labs to run them on such hardware.

We were asked to customize our embedded Linux training session with specific labs on OMAP 3530 hardware. After a successful delivery on the customer site, using Beagle boards, here are our training materials, released as usual under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license:

If you are the happy owner of such a board (both attractive and cheap), or are interested in getting one, you can get valuable embedded Linux experience by reading our lecture materials and by taking our practical labs.

Here’s what you would practise with if you decide to take our labs:

  • Build a cross-compiling toolchain with crosstool-NG
  • Compile U-boot and the X-loader and install it on MMC and flash storage.
  • Manipulate Linux kernel sources and apply source patches
  • Configure, compile and boot a Linux kernel for an emulated PC target
  • Configure, cross-compile and boot a Linux kernel on your Beagle Board
  • Build a tiny filesystem from scratch, based on BusyBox, and with a web server interface. Practice with NFS booting.
  • Put your filesystem on MMC storage, replacing NFS. Practice with SquashFS.
  • Put your filesystem on internal NAND flash storage. Practice with JFFS2 too.
  • Manually cross-compile libraries (zlib, libpng, libjpeg, FreeType and DirectFB) and a DirectFB examples, getting familiar with the tricks required to cross-compile components provided by the community.
  • Build the same kind of graphical system automatically with Buildroot.
  • Compile your own application against existing libraries. Debug a target application with strace, ltrace and gdbserver running on the target.
  • Do experiments with the rt-preempt patches. Measure scheduling latency improvements.
  • Implement hotplugging with mdev, BusyBox’s lightweight alternative to udev.

Note that the labs were tested with Rev. C boards, but are also supposed to work fine with Rev. B ones. You may also be able to reuse some of our instructions with other boards with a TI OMAP3 processor.

Of course, if you like the materials, you can also ask your company to order such a training session from us. We will be delighted to come to your place and spend time with you and your colleagues.

Bootlin at ELCE 2009

Grenoble

As usual, we won’t miss this year’s edition of the Embedded Linux Conference Europe, which has always been a great source of information and encounters for embedded Linux developers.

Here are details about our involvement this year.

  • I am part of the organization committee, in particular the coordinator for the Technical Showcase.
  • Taking advantage of his stay in Grenoble, my colleague Thomas Petazzoni will make an embedded Linux presentation on Tuesday, Oct. 13 at 7:30 pm, at GUILDE, the local Linux user group.
  • Thomas and I will be present at the Embedded Systems Exhibition on Wednesday, Oct. 14, sharing a booth with our partner CALAO Systems. The exhibition entry is free of charge, and this will be an excellent opportunity to meet us and have enough time to talk about your topics of interest.
  • Thomas will lead the Buildroot BOF with Peter Korsgaard, Buildroot’s maintainer, at 5:35 pm on Thursday, Oct. 15. This informal session will allow users and developers to meet and exchange ideas.
  • I will be the leader of the Small Business BOF on Thursday 15 at 6:35 pm, an informal session for small embedded Linux companies interested in sharing experience and best practices, and of course to know each other better.
  • I will make a presentation on boot time reduction techniques, at 3:40 on Friday, Oct. 16.
  • Albin Tonnerre, who was an intern at Bootlin this summer, will participate to the Technical Showcase at 12:00 am on Friday, Oct. 16, showing the benefits of LZO decompression on kernel boot time. During his internship, Albin made very nice contributions to boot time reduction, power management on AT91 and to U-boot board support.
  • Thomas Petazzoni will also participate to the Technical Showcase at the same time, showing Buidroot’s new features.
  • We will videotape the conferences we go to and will release the videos later on our website.
  • Thomas organizes a Buildroot developer day on Saturday, Oct. 17, allowing developers to meet and code together. Bootlin will offer lunch to the participants, and the room will be offered by CALAO Systems. There are no more seats left for space reasons.

Hope to see you in Grenoble!

Faster boot: starting Linux directly from AT91bootstrap

Reducing start-up time looks like one of the most discussed topics nowadays, for both embedded and desktop systems. Typically, the boot process consists of three steps: AT91SAM9263 CPU

  • First-stage bootloader
  • Second-stage bootloader
  • Linux kernel

The first-stage bootloader is often a tiny piece of code whose sole purpose is to bring the hardware in a state where it is able to execute more elaborate programs. On our testing board (CALAO TNY-A9260), it’s a piece of code the CPU stores in internal SRAM and its size is limited to 4Kib, which is a very small amount of space indeed. The second-stage bootloader often provides more advanced features, like downloading the kernel from the network, looking at the contents of the memory, and so on. On our board, this second-stage bootloader is the famous U-Boot.

One way of achieving a faster boot is to simply bypass the second-stage bootloader, and directly boot Linux from the first-stage bootloader. This first-stage bootloader here is AT91bootstrap, which is an open-source bootloader developed by Atmel for their AT91 ARM-based SoCs. While this approach is somewhat static, it’s suitable for production use when the needs are simple (like simply loading a kernel from NAND flash and booting it), and allows to effectively reduce the boot time by not loading U-Boot at all. On our testing board, that saves about 2s.

As we have the source, it’s rather easy to modify AT91bootstrap to suit our needs. To make things easier, we’ll boot using an existing U-Boot uImage. The only requirement is that it should be an uncompressed uImage, like the one automatically generated by make uImage when building the kernel (there’s not much point using such compressed uImage files on ARM anyway, as it is possible to build self-extractible compressed kernels on this platform).

Looking at the (shortened) main.c, the code that actually boots the kernel looks like this:

int main(void)
{
/* ================== 1st step: Hardware Initialization ================= */
/* Performs the hardware initialization */
hw_init();

/* Load from Nandflash in RAM */
load_nandflash(IMG_ADDRESS, IMG_SIZE, JUMP_ADDR);

/* Jump to the Image Address */
return JUMP_ADDR;
}

In the original source code, load_nandflash actually loads the second-stage bootloader, and then jumps directly to JUMP_ADDR (this value can be found in U-Boot as TEXT_BASE, in the board-specific file config.mk. This is the base address from which the program will be executed). Now, if we want to load the kernel directly instead of a second-level bootloader, we need to know a handful of values:

  • the kernel image address (we will reuse IMG_ADDRESS here, but one could
    imagine reading the actual image address from a fixed location in NAND)
  • the kernel size
  • the kernel load address
  • the kernel entry point

The last three values can be extracted from the uImage header. We will not hard-code the kernel size as it was previously the case (using IMG_SIZE), as this would lead to set a maximum size for the image and would force us to copy more data than necessary. All those values are stored as 32 bits bigendian in the header. Looking at the struct image_header declaration from image.h in the uboot-mkimage sources, we can see that the header structure is like this:

typedef struct image_header {
uint32_t    ih_magic;    /* Image Header Magic Number    */
uint32_t    ih_hcrc;    /* Image Header CRC Checksum    */
uint32_t    ih_time;    /* Image Creation Timestamp    */
uint32_t    ih_size;    /* Image Data Size        */
uint32_t    ih_load;    /* Data     Load  Address        */
uint32_t    ih_ep;        /* Entry Point Address        */
uint32_t    ih_dcrc;    /* Image Data CRC Checksum    */
uint8_t        ih_os;        /* Operating System        */
uint8_t        ih_arch;    /* CPU architecture        */
uint8_t        ih_type;    /* Image Type            */
uint8_t        ih_comp;    /* Compression Type        */
uint8_t        ih_name[IH_NMLEN];    /* Image Name        */
} image_header_t;

It’s quite easy to determine where the values we’re looking for actually are in the uImage header.

  • ih_size is the fourth member, hence we can find it at offset 12
  • ih_load and ih_ep are right after ih_size, and therefore can be found at offset 16 and 20.

A first call to load_nandflash is necessary to get those values. As the data we need are contained within the first 32 bytes, that’s all we need to load at first. However, some space is required in memory to actually store the data. The first-stage bootloader is running in internal SRAM, so we can pick any location we want in SDRAM. For the sake of simplicity, we’ll choose PHYS_SDRAM_BASEhere, which we define to the base address of the on-board SDRAM in the CPU address space. Then, a second call will be necessary to load the entire kernel image at the right load address.

Then all we need to do is:

#define be32_to_cpu(a) ((a)[0] << 24 | (a)[1] << 16 | (a)[2] << 8 | (a)[3])
#define PHYS_SDRAM_BASE 0x20000000

int main(void)
{
unsigned char *tmp;
unsigned long jump_addr;
unsigned long load_addr;
unsigned long size;

hw_init();

load_nandflash(IMG_ADDRESS, 0x20, PHYS_SDRAM_BASE);

/* Setup tmp so that we can read the kernel size */
tmp = PHYS_SDRAM_BASE + 12;
size = be32_to_cpu(tmp);

/* Now, load address */
tmp += 4;
load_addr = be32_to_cpu(tmp);

/* And finally, entry point */
tmp += 4;
jump_addr = be32_to_cpu(tmp);

/* Load the actual kernel */
load_nandflash(IMG_ADDRESS, size, load_addr - 0x40);

return jump_addr;
}

Note that the second call to load_nandflash could in theory be replaced by:

load_nandflash(IMG_ADDRESS + 0x40, size + 0x40, load_addr);

However, this will not work. What happens is that load_nandflash starts reading at an address aligned on a page boundary, so even when passing IMG_ADDRESS+0x40 as a first argument, reading will start at IMG_ADDRESS, leading to a failure (writes have to aligned on a page boundary, so it is safe to assume that IMG_ADDRESS is actually correctly aligned).

The above piece of code will silently fail if anything goes wrong, and does no checking at all – indeed, the binary size is very limited and we can’t afford to put more code than what is strictly necessary to boot the kernel.

ELC 2009 videos

My Colleague Thomas and I had the privilege to participate to the 2009 edition of the Embedded Linux Conference, which took place in San Francisco, on April 6-8. In spite of the weak economy, this event was once again a success. It attracted major developers from the embedded Linux community, as well as participants from all over the word.

Following the tradition, we are proud to release new videos about this event. These videos were shot by Satoru Ueda and Tim Bird (Sony), and by Thomas Petazzoni and Michael Opdenacker (Bootlin). For the first time, we used an HD camcorder to shoot some of the videos. A higher resolution allows to read the slides projected on the screen. As usual, the videos are released with a Creative Commons Attribution – ShareAlike 3.0 license.

Thomas and I found the following talks particularly interesting:

  • Ubiquitous Linux, by Dirk Hohndel
  • Embedded Linux and Mainline Kernel, by David Woodhouse
  • What are Interrupt Threads and How Do They Work?, by Reece Pollack
  • Visualizing Process Memory, by Matt Mackall
  • KProbes and Systemtap Status, by Tim Bird
  • Deploying LTTng on Exotic Embedded Architectures, by Mathieu Desnoyers
  • Embedded Linux on FPGAs for fun and profit, by Dr John Williams (Petalogix)
  • Linux on Embedded PowerPC porting guide, by Grant Likely
  • Understanding and writing an LLVM Compiler Backend, by Bruno Cardoso Lopes

You may be interested in watching the presentations we made and the BOFs we led:

  • Building Embedded Linux Systems with Buildroot, by Thomas Petazzoni. In these last months, Thomas has made big contributions to this build system.
  • Build tools BOF, by Thomas Petazzoni
  • Update on filesystems for flash storage, by Michael Opdenacker
  • System Size BOF, by Michael Opdenacker

Of course, lots of other talks were very interesting. See the whole list by yourself:

Linux 2.6.30 – New features for embedded systems

Interesting features in Linux 2.6.30 for embedded system developers

Linux 2.6.30 has been released almost 1 month ago and it’s high time to write a little about it. Like every new kernel release, it contains interesting features for embedded system developers.

The first feature that stands out is support for fastboot. Today, most devices are initialized in a sequential way. As scanning and probing the hardware often requires waiting for the devices to be ready, a significant amount of cpu time is wasted in delay loops. The fastboot infrastructure allows to run device initialization routines in parallel, keeping the cpu fully busy and thus reducing boot time in a significant way. Fasboot can be enabled by passing the fastboot parameter in the kernel command line. However, unless your embedded system uses PC hardware, don’t be surprised if you don’t get any boot time reduction yet. If you look at the code, you will see that the async_schedule function is only used by 4 drivers so far, mainly for disk drives. You can see that board support code and most drivers still need to be converted to this new infrastructure. Let’s hope this will progress in future kernel releases, bringing significant boot time savings to everyone.

Tomoyo LinuxLinux 2.6.30 also features the inclusion of Tomoyo Linux, a lightweight Mandatory Access Control system developed by NTT. According to presentations I saw quite a long time ago, Tomoyo can be used as an alternative to SELinux, and it just consumes a very reasonable amount of RAM and storage space. It should interest people making embedded devices which are always connected to the network, and need strong security.

Another nice feature is support for kernel images compressed with bzip2 and lzma, and not just with zlib as it’s been the case of ages. The bzip2 and lzma compressors allow to reduce the size of a compressed kernel in a significant way. This should appeal to everyone interested in saving a few hundreds of kilobytes of storage space. Just beware that decompressing these formats requires more CPU resources, so there may be a price to pay in terms of boot time if you have a slow cpu, like in many embedded systems. On the other hand, if you have a fast cpu and rather slow I/O, like in a PC, you may also see a reduction in boot time. In this case, you would mainly save I/O time copying a smaller kernel to RAM, and with a fast cpu, the extra decompression cost wouldn’t be too high.

However, if you take a closer look at this new feature, you will find that it is only supported on x86 and blackfin. Alain Knaff, the author of the original patches, did summit a patch for the arm architecture, but it didn’t make it this time. Upon my request, Alain posted an update to this arm patch. Unfortunately, decompressing the kernel no longer works after applying this patch. There seems to be something wrong with the decompression code… Stay tuned on the LKML to follow up this issue. Note that the blackfin maintainers took another approach, apparently. They didn’t include any decompression code on this architecture. Instead, they relied on the bootloader to take care of decompression. While this is simpler, at least from the kernel code point of view, this is not a satisfactory solution. It would be best if the arm kernel bootstrap code took care of this task, which would then work with any board and any bootloader.

Another interesting feature is the inclusion of the Microblaze architecture, a soft core cpu on Xilinx FPGAs. This MMU-less core has been supported for quite a long time by uClinux, and it’s good news that it is now supported in the mainline kernel. This guarantees that this cpu will indeed be maintained for a long time, and could thus be a good choice in your designs.

Other noteworthy features are support for threaded interrupt handlers (which shows that work to merge the real-time preempt patches is progressing), ftrace support in 32 and 64 bit powerpc, new tracers, and of course, several new embedded boards and many new device drivers.

As usual, full details can be found on the Linux Kernel Newbies website.

Linux kernel 2.6.29 – New features for embedded users

Tuz Linux logoThe 2.6.29 version of the Linux kernel has just been released by Linus Torvalds. Like all kernel releases, this new version offers a number of interesting new features.

For embedded users, the most important new feature is certainly the inclusion of Squashfs, a read-only compressed filesystem. This filesystem is very well-suited to store the immutable parts of an embedded system (applications, libraries, static data, etc.), and replaces the old cramfs filesystem which had some strong limitations (file size, filesystem size and limited compression).

Squashfs is a block filesystem, but since it is read-only, you can also use it on flash partitions, through the mtdblock driver. It’s fine as you just write the filesystem image once. Don’t hesitate to try it to get the best performance out of your flash partitions. Ideally, you should even use it on top of UBI, which would transparently allow the read-only parts of your filesystem to participate to wear-leveling. See sections about filesystems in our embedded Linux training materials for details.

This new release also adds Fastboot support, at least for scsi probes and libata port scan. This is a step forward to reducing boot time, which is often critical in embedded systems.

2.6.29 also allows stripping of generated symbols under CONFIG_KALLSYMS_ALL, saving up to 200 KB for kernels built with this feature. This is nice for embedded systems with very little RAM, which still need this feature during development.

Another new feature of this kernel is the support for the Samsung S3C64XX CPUs. Of course, a lot of new boards and devices are supported, such as the framebuffer of the i.MX 31 CPU, or the SMSC LAN911x and LAN912x Ethernet controllers.

The other major features of this new kernel, not necessarily interesting for embedded systems are the inclusion of the btrfs filesystem, the inclusion of the kernel modesetting code, support for WiMAX, scalability improvements (support of 4096 CPUs!), filesystem freezing capability, filesystem improvements and many new drivers.

For more details on the 2.6.29 improvements, the best resource is certainly the human-readable changelog written by the KernelNewbies.org community.

USB-Ethernet device for Linux

Useful device when you work with an embedded development board

For our Embedded Linux training sessions, I was looking for a USB to Ethernet device. Since Linux supported devices are often difficult to find, I’m glad to share my investigations here.

When you use an embedded development board, you must connect it to your computer with an Ethernet cable, for example to transfer a new kernel image to U-boot through tftp, or to make your board boot on a directory on your workstation, exported with NFS.

You could connect both the board and computer to your local network, which would still allow your computer to connect to the Internet while you work with the board. However, you may create conflicts on your local network if you don’t use DHCP to assign an IP address to your board (if your DHCP server even accepts this new device on the network). In a training environment, you are also likely to run out of Ethernet outlets in the training room if you have to connect 8 such boards. Hence, a direct connection between the board and your workstation’s Ethernet port is often the most convenient solution.

If you can’t use WIFI to keep your computer connected to the outside world, a good solution is to add an extra Ethernet port to your computer by using an USB-to-Ethernet device.

My colleague Thomas and I started looking for such devices that would be supported by Linux. Here are a few that we found:

  • D-Link DUB-E100. Supported by the USB_NET_AX8817X driver. However, this product is bulky and quite heavy (at least 100 grams).
  • TRENDnet TU2-E100. Supported by the same driver, but still bulk (August 2015 update: now replaced by a more recent version, now almost as small as the Apple one, and supported out of the box in Linux. See the comment about this device.)
  • Linksys USB 200m. Supported by the same Linux driver and has a much more acceptable size, but customer reviews complain that its connector can break easily.
  • Apple USB Ethernet Adapter. This should be working out of the box in Linux. At least the MB442Z/A or MC704ZM/A references did, but Apple now sells a new reference that might have a different chipset. It is beautiful, small and light. Support for this device (at least the references I mentioned) was added to Linux 2.6.26 through the same driver. You should be able to use it in recent distros.

Apple USB to EthernetSo, I recommend the Apple device. I event posted a comment on the Apple Store, titled “Perfect for Linux”! I hope the Apple droids won’t censor it. Don’t hesitate to buy it, so that we can confirm that the latest reference is supported too.

I can’t tell whether this could happen with Apple. This was the first Apple device I ever bought…