ELBE: automated building of Ubuntu images for a Raspberry Pi 3B

Building embedded Linux systems

ELBETypical embedded Linux systems include a wide number of software components, which all need to be compiled and integrated together. Two main approaches are used in the industry to integrate such embedded Linux systems: build systems such as Yocto/OpenEmbedded, Buildroot or OpenWrt, and binary distributions such as Debian, Ubuntu or Fedora. Of course, both options have their own advantages and drawbacks.

One of the benefits of using standard binary distributions such as Debian or Ubuntu is their widespread use, their serious and long-term security maintenance and their large number of packages. However, they often lack appropriate tools to automate the process of creating a complete Linux system image that combines existing binary packages and custom packages.

In this blog post, we introduce ELBE (Embedded Linux Build Environment), which is a build system designed to build Debian distributions and images for the embedded world. While ELBE was initially focused on Debian only, Bootlin contributed support for building Ubuntu images with ELBE, and this blog post will show as an example how to build an Ubuntu image with ELBE for a Raspberry Pi 3B.

ELBE base principle

When you first run ELBE, it creates a Virtual Machine (VM) for building root filesystems. This VM is called initvm. The process of building the root filesystem for your image is to submit and XML file to the initvm, which triggers the building of an image.

The ELBE XML file can contain an archive, which can contain configuration files, and additional software. It uses pre-built software in the form of Debian/Ubuntu packages (.deb). It is also possible to use custom repositories to get special packages into the root filesystem. The resulting root file system (a customized Debian or Ubuntu distribution) can still be upgraded and maintained through Debian’s tools such as APT (Advanced Package Tool). This is the biggest difference between ELBE and other build systems like the Yocto Project and Buildroot.

Bootlin contributions

As mentioned in this blog post introduction, Bootlin contributed support for building Ubuntu images to ELBE, which led to the following upstream commits:

Build an Ubuntu image for the Raspberry Pi 3B

We are now going to illustrate how to use ELBE by showing how to build an image for the popular RaspberryPi 3B platform.

Add required packages

This was tested on Ubuntu 20.04. Install the below packages if needed, and make sure you are in the libvirt, libvirt-qemu and kvm groups:

$ sudo apt install python3 python3-debian python3-mako \
  python3-lxml python3-apt python3-gpg python3-suds \
  python3-libvirt qemu-utils qemu-kvm p7zip-full \
  make libvirt-daemon libvirt-daemon-system \
  libvirt-clients python3-urwid
$ sudo adduser youruser libvirt 
$ sudo adduser youruser libvirt-qemu
$ sudo adduser youruser kvm
$ newgrp libvirt
$ newgrp libvirt-qemu
$ newgrp kvm

Prepare ELBE initvm

First, you need to clone ELBE’s git reposority:

git clone https://github.com/Linutronix/elbe.git

We need to use the v13.2 version because our latest contributions for Ubuntu support made it to 13.2:

$ cd elbe
$ git checkout v13.2

To create the initvm:

$ PATH=$PATH:$(pwd)
$ elbe initvm create --devel

The --devel parameter allows to use ELBE from the current working directory into the initvm.

If the command fails with the Signature with unknown key: message you need to add these keys to apt. Use the following command where XXX is the key to be added:

$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys XXX

Creating your initvm should take at least 10 to 20 minutes.

In case you rebooted your computer or stopped the VM, you will need to start it:

$ elbe initvm start

Create an ELBE project for our Ubuntu image.

To begin with, we will base our image on the armhf-ubuntu example. We create an ELBE pbuilder project and not a simple ELBE project because we later want to build our own Linux kernel package for our board:

$ elbe pbuilder create --xmlfile=examples/armhf-ubuntu.xml \
  --writeproject rpi.prj --cross

The project identifier is written to rpi.prj. We save the identifier to a shell variable to simplify the next ELBE commands:

$ PRJ=$(cat rpi.prj)

Build the Linux package

As explained earlier we want to use ELBE to build our package for the Linux kernel. ELBE uses the standard Debian tool pbuilder to build packages. Therefore, we need to have debianized sources (i.e sources with the appropriate Debian metadata in a debian/ subfolder) to build a package with pbuilder.

First clone the Linux repositories:

$ git clone -b rpi-5.10.y https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git
$ cd linux

Debianize the Linux repositories. We use the elbe debianize command to simplify the generation of the debian folder:

$ elbe debianize

Fill the settings in the UI as follows (make sure you reduce the font size if you don’t see the Confirm button):

Make sure you set Name to rpi. Otherwise, you won’t get the output file names we use in the upcoming instructions.

The debianize command helps to create the skeleton of the debian folder in the sources. It has been pre-configured for a few packages like bootloaders or the Linux kernel, to create the rules to build these packages. It may need further modifications to finish the packaging process. Take a look a the manual to have more information on debianization. In our case, we need to tweak the debian/ folder with the two following steps to cross-build the Raspberry Linux kernel without error.

Append the below lines to the debian/rules file (use tabs instead of spaces):

override_dh_strip:
	dh_strip -Xscripts

override_dh_shlibdeps:
	dh_shlibdeps -Xscripts

Remove the following line from the debian/linux-image-5.10-rpi.install file:

./lib/firmware/*

Update the source format:

$ echo "1.0" > debian/source/format

The Linux kernel sources are now ready, we can run elbe pbuilder to compile them:

$ mkdir ../out
$ elbe pbuilder build --project $PRJ --cross --out ../out

According to how fast your system is, this can run for hours!

If everything ends well without error the out/ directory has been filled with output files:

$ ls ../out
linux-5.10-rpi_1.0_armhf.buildinfo
linux-5.10-rpi_1.0_armhf.changes
linux-5.10-rpi_1.0.dsc
linux-5.10-rpi_1.0.tar.gz
linux-headers-5.10-rpi_1.0_armhf.deb
linux-image-5.10-rpi_1.0_armhf.deb
linux-libc-dev-5.10-rpi_1.0_armhf.deb

Update the Ubuntu XML image description

Now we have our Linux kernel packaged we can move on to the image generation. Since we started from examples/armhf-ubuntu.xml, we will modify this file to fit our needs.

We begin by adding the Linux kernel package to the XML image description in the pkg-list node:


<pkg-list>
...
	<pkg>linux-image-5.10-rpi</pkg>
...
</pkg-list>

We also have to add the Device Tree to the boot/ directory because the Linux kernel package installs all the Device Trees into the /usr/lib directory.

This change is part of the rootfs modifications, therefore it is described under the finetuning XML node. We also rename the kernel image to kernel.img:


<finetuning>
...
	<cp path="/usr/lib/linux-image-5.10-rpi/bcm2710-rpi-3-b.dtb">/boot/bcm2710-rpi-3-b.dtb</cp>
	<cp path="/usr/lib/linux-image-5.10-rpi/overlays">/boot/overlays</cp>
	<mv path="/boot/vmlinuz-5.10-rpi">/boot/kernel.img</mv>
...
</finetuning>

We want to use an SD card on our Raspberry Pi, so we have to describe the partitioning of our image. For this purpose, we add the images and the fstab XML nodes to the target XML node:


<target>
...
	<images>
		<msdoshd>
			<name>sdcard.img</name>
			<size>1500MiB</size>
				<partition>
					<size>50MiB</size>
					<label>boot</label>
					<bootable/>
				</partition>
				<partition>
					<size>remain</size>
					<label>rfs</label>
				</partition>
		</msdoshd>
	</images>
	<fstab>
		<bylabel>
			<label>rfs</label>
			<mountpoint>/</mountpoint>
			<fs>
				<type>ext2</type>
			</fs>
		</bylabel>
		<bylabel>
			<label>boot</label>
			<mountpoint>/boot</mountpoint>
			<fs>
				<type>vfat</type>
			</fs>
		</bylabel>
	</fstab>
...
</target>

The Raspberry Pi board also needs firmware binaries and configurations file to boot properly. We will use the overlay directory to add these Raspberry firmware files to the image:

$ mkdir -p overlay/boot
$ cd overlay/boot
$ wget https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/raw/1.20210201/boot/bootcode.bin
$ wget https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/raw/1.20210201/boot/start.elf
$ wget https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/raw/1.20210201/boot/fixup.dat
$ echo "console=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait" > cmdline.txt
$ echo "dtoverlay=miniuart-bt" > config.txt

ELBE stores the overlay uuencoded in the XML file using the chg_archive command:

$ elbe chg_archive examples/armhf-ubuntu.xml overlay

The archive node got created in the XML file.

To tell ELBE that the XML file has changed, you need to send it to the initvm:

$ elbe control set_xml $PRJ examples/armhf-ubuntu.xml

Then build the image with ELBE:

$ elbe control build $PRJ
$ elbe control wait_busy $PRJ

Finally, if the build completes successfully, you can retrieve the image file from the initvm:

$ elbe control get_files $PRJ
$ elbe control get_file $PRJ sdcard.img.tar.gz

Now you can flash the SD card image:

$ tar xf sdcard.img.tar.gz
$ dd if=sdcard.img of=/dev/sdX bs=1M

And boot the board with root and foo as login and password:

Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS myUbuntu ttyAMA0

myUbuntu login: root
Password: 
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.10-rpi armv7l)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.

root@myUbuntu:~# 

Note: Ubuntu cannot be built for Raspberry A, B, B+, 0 and 0W according to https://wiki.ubuntu.com/ARM/RaspberryPi, as Ubuntu targets the ARMv7-A architecture, while the older RaspberryPi use an ARMv6 processor.

Further details

LTP: Linux Test Project, Bootlin contributions

Introduction

The Linux Test Project is a project that develops and maintains a large test suite that helps validating the reliability, robustness and stability of the Linux kernel and related features. LTP has been mainly developed by companies such as IBM, Cisco, Fujitsu, SUSE, RedHat, with a focus on desktop distributions.

On the embedded side, both the openembedded-core Yocto layer and Buildroot have packages that allow to use LTP on embedded targets. However, for a recent project, we practically tried to run the full LTP test suite on an i.MX8 based platform running a Linux system built with Yocto. It turned out that LTP was apparently not very often tested on Busybox-based embedded systems, and we faced a number of issues. In addition to reporting various bugs/issues to the upstream LTP project, we also contributed a number of fixes and improvements:

Our contributions received a very warm welcome in the LTP community, which turned out to be very open and responsive. We hope that these contributions will encourage others to use LTP, and hopefully to make sure it continues to work on embedded platforms.

Quick start guide

At the time of this writing, LTP has more than 3800 tests written by the community, including about 1000 network-related tests. The tests are grouped together in categories described by files in the runtest/ folder. Based on this, two scenarios of tests are defined: default and network which are described by two files in the scenario_groups/ folder. These two scenarios simply list the categories of tests that need to be executed.

Here are the contents of the default and network:

$ cat scenario_groups/default 
syscalls
fs
fs_perms_simple
fsx
dio
io
mm
ipc
sched
math
nptl
pty
containers
fs_bind
controllers
filecaps
cap_bounds
fcntl-locktests
connectors
power_management_tests
hugetlb
commands
hyperthreading
can
cpuhotplug
net.ipv6_lib
input
cve
crypto
kernel_misc
uevent
$ cat scenario_groups/network 
can
net.features
net.ipv6
net.ipv6_lib
net.tcp_cmds
net.multicast
net.rpc
net.nfs
net.rpc_tests
net.tirpc_tests
net.sctp
net_stress.appl
net_stress.broken_ip
net_stress.interface
net_stress.ipsec_dccp
net_stress.ipsec_icmp
net_stress.ipsec_sctp
net_stress.ipsec_tcp
net_stress.ipsec_udp
net_stress.multicast
net_stress.route

Once you have LTP built and installed on your board thanks to the appropriate OpenEmbedded or Buildroot package, you can run these two scenarios of test with the following commands (-n specify the network one):

$ cd /opt/ltp
$ ./runltp
$ ./runltp -n

Then take a look at the content of the result and the output directories.

For more information on building or running LTP please read this readme.